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GIS in Water Resources: Lecture 1
  • In-class and distance learning
  • Geospatial database of hydrologic features
  • GIS and HIS
  • Curved earth and a flat map
Lectures

Powerpoint slides

Video streaming

Readings

“Arc Hydro: GIS in Water Resources” and other materials

Homework

Computer exercises

Hand exercises

Term Project

Oral presentation

HTML report

Class Interaction

Email

Discussion

Examinations

Midterm, final

Six Basic Course Elements

Dr David Tarboton

Students at Utah State University

Dr Ayse Irmak Students at University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Our Classroom

Dr David Maidment Students at UT Austin

Traditional Classroom

Community

Inside and Outside

The Classroom

University Without WallsInstructor-Centered Presentation

Community-Centered Presentation

Learning Styles

Instructor

Student

We learn from the instructors and each other

GIS in Water Resources: Lecture 1
  • In-class and distance learning
  • Geospatial database of hydrologic features
  • GIS and HIS
  • Curved earth and a flat map
Geographic Data Model
  • Conceptual Model – a set of concepts that describe a subject and allow reasoning about it
  • Mathematical Model – a conceptual model expressed in symbols and equations
  • Data Model – a conceptual model expressed in a data structure (e.g. ascii files, Excel tables, …..)
  • Geographic Data Model – a conceptual model for describing and reasoning about the world expressed in a GIS database

Data Model based on Inventory of data layers

Spatial Data: Vector format

Vector data are defined spatially:

(x1,y1)

Point - a pair of x and y coordinates

vertex

Line - a sequence of points

Node

Polygon - a closed set of lines

Themes or Data Layers

Vector data: point, line or polygon features

Kissimmee watershed, Florida

Themes

Attributes of a Selected FeatureRaster and Vector Data

Raster data are described by a cell grid, one value per cell

Vector

Raster

Point

Line

Zone of cells

Polygon

Santa Barbara, California

http://srtm.usgs.gov/srtmimagegallery/index.html

How do we combine these data?

Digital Elevation

Models

Streams

Watersheds

Waterbodies

An integrated raster-vector databaseGIS in Water Resources: Lecture 1
  • In-class and distance learning
  • Geospatial database of hydrologic features
  • GIS and HIS
  • Curved earth and a flat map
Linking Geographic Information Systems and Water Resources

Water

Resources

GIS

Point Water Observations Time Series

A point location in space

A series of values in time

This System IntegratesMany Types of Water Observations Data

Water quantity

Rainfall

Soil water

Water quality

Meteorology

Groundwater

A Key Challenge

How to connect water environment with water observations

Time Series Data

GIS

Water Environment

(Watersheds, streams,gages, sampling points)

Water Observations

(Flow, water levelconcentration)

CUAHSI Member Institutions

122 Universities as of August 2009

Hydrologic Information System Goals
  • Data Access– providing better access to a large volume of high quality hydrologic data;
  • Hydrologic Observatories– storing and synthesizing hydrologic data for a region;
  • Hydrologic Science– providing a stronger hydrologic information infrastructure;
  • Hydrologic Education– bringing more hydrologic data into the classroom.
This is Enabled by WaterML

A Web Language for Water Observations Data

. . .Adopted by USGS, and other agencies for Publishing Some of their Data

GetValues Response in WaterML

The CUAHSI Data Catalog Integrates

Multi Source Water Data Services

47 services

15,000 variables

1.8 million sites

9 million series

4.3 billion data Values

Map Integrating NWIS, STORET, & Climatic Sites

. . . The Worlds Largest Water Data Catalog

Three Basic Internet Components: Catalog, Server, User Linked by HTML

Catalog

HTML

Server

User

CUAHSI HIS Components Linked by WaterML

Catalog

WaterML

Server

User

Organize Water Data Into “Themes”

Integrating Water Data Services From Multiple Agencies

. . . Across Groups of Organizations

Bringing Water Into GISThematic Maps of Water Observations as GIS Layers

Groundwater

Streamflow

Salinity

Unified access to water data in Texas ….

Arc Hydro: GIS for Water Resources

Published in 2002, now in revision for Arc Hydro II

  • ArcHydro
    • An ArcGIS datamodelfor water resources
    • Arc Hydro toolset for implementation
    • Framework for linking hydrologicsimulationmodels

The Arc Hydro data model and

application tools are in the public

Domain.

Arc Hydro—Hydrography

The blue lines on maps

Arc Hydro—Hydrology

The movement of water through the hydrologic system

Integrating Data Inventory using a Behavioral Model

Relationships between

objects linked by tracing path

of water movement

Drainage System

Hydro Network

Flow

Time

Time Series

Hydrography

Channel System

Arc Hydro Components

Analysis, Modeling,

Decision Making

Arc Hydro

Geodatabase

Hydrologic Information System

A synthesis of geospatial and temporal data supporting hydrologic analysis and modeling

GIS in Water Resources: Lecture 1
  • In-class and distance learning
  • Geospatial database of hydrologic features
  • GIS and HIS
  • Curved earth and a flat map
Origin of Geographic Coordinates

Equator

(0,0)

Prime Meridian

Latitude and Longitude

Longitude line (Meridian)

N

W

E

S

Range: 180ºW - 0º - 180ºE

Latitude line (Parallel)

N

W

E

S

(0ºN, 0ºE)

Equator, Prime Meridian

Range: 90ºS - 0º - 90ºN

60 N

30 N

60 W

120 W

90 W

0 N

Latitude and Longitude in North America

40 50 59 96 45 0

Austin:

Logan:

Lincoln:

(30°18' 22" N, 97°45' 3" W)

(41°44' 24" N, 111°50' 9" W)

(40°50' 59" N, 96°45' 0" W)

Map Projection

Flat Map

Cartesian coordinates: x,y

(Easting & Northing)

Curved Earth

Geographic coordinates: f, l

(Latitude & Longitude)

Representative Fraction

Globe distanceEarth distance

=

Earth to Globe to Map

Map Projection:

Map Scale:

Scale Factor

Map distanceGlobe distance

=

(e.g. 0.9996)

(e.g. 1:24,000)

Coordinate Systems

A planar coordinate system is defined by a pair

of orthogonal (x,y) axes drawn through an origin

Y

X

Origin

(xo,yo)

(fo,lo)

Summary (1)
  • GIS in Water Resources is about empowerment through use of information technology – helping you to understand the world around you and to investigate problems of interest to you
  • This is an “open class” in every sense where we learn from one another as well as from the instructors
Summary (2)
  • GIS offers a structured information model for working with geospatial data that describe the “water environment” (watersheds, streams, lakes, land use, ….)
  • Water resources also needs observations and modeling to describe “the water” (discharge, water quality, water level, precipitation)
Summary (3)
  • A Hydrologic Information System depends on water web services and integrates spatial and temporal water resources data
  • Geography “brings things together” through georeferencing on the earth’s surface
  • Understanding geolocation on the earth and working with geospatial coordinate systems is fundamental to this field

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