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GIS in Water Resources: Lecture 1. The goal of this class is to learn how to apply geographic information

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GIS in Water Resources: Lecture 1

The goal of this class is to learn how to apply geographic information systems in water resources.

Hydrologists use many different data sources and GIS provides the capability to integrate them in the analysis of water resources problems

Our Classroom

Dr Wayne Woldt, Dr Ayse Irmak students at University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Dr David Tarboton

Students at Utah State University

Dr David Maidment students at UT Austin

GIS in Action: Hurricane Katrina – 1 year later

Flooding in

New Orleans

http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/9130254/

  • Water mapping
    • where is the water
    • what is in the water?
  • Water movement
    • where is it going?

http://msnbc.msn.com/id/9150429/

Issues for this course

http://lacpr.usace.army.mil/

http://lacpr.usace.army.mil/

Flooding in

New Orleans

http://lacpr.usace.army.mil/

GIS in Water Resources: Lecture 1
  • In-class and distance learning
  • Geospatial database of hydrologic features
  • Arc Hydro data model
  • Curved earth and a flat map
Lectures

Powerpoint slides

Video streaming

Readings

“Arc Hydro: GIS in Water Resources”

Homework

Computer exercises

Hand exercises

Term Project

Oral presentation

HTML report

Class Interaction

Email

Discussion

Examinations

Midterm, final

Six Basic Course ElementsInstructor-Centered Presentation

Community-Centered Presentation

Learning Styles

Instructor

Student

Traditional Classroom

Community

Inside and Outside

The Classroom

University Without Walls

Distance Learning

Dr Wayne Woldt, Dr Ayse Irmak students at University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Dr David Tarboton

Students at Utah State University

Other

People

Other

People

Dr David Maidment students at UT Austin

GIS in Water Resources: Lecture 1
  • In-class and distance learning
  • Geospatial database of hydrologic features
  • Arc Hydro data model
  • Curved earth and a flat map
Geographic Data Model
  • Conceptual Model – a set of concepts that describe a subject and allow reasoning about it
  • Mathematical Model – a conceptual model expressed in symbols and equations
  • Data Model – a conceptual model expressed in a data structure (e.g. ascii files, Excel tables, …..)
  • Geographic Data Model – a conceptual model for describing and reasoning about the world expressed in a GIS database

Data Model based on Inventory of data layers

Spatial Data: Vector format

Vector data are defined spatially:

(x1,y1)

Point - a pair of x and y coordinates

vertex

Line - a sequence of points

Node

Polygon - a closed set of lines

Themes or Data Layers

Vector data: point, line or polygon features

Kissimmee watershed, Florida

Themes

Attributes of a Selected FeatureRaster and Vector Data

Raster data are described by a cell grid, one value per cell

Vector

Raster

Point

Line

Zone of cells

Polygon

Santa Barbara, California

http://srtm.usgs.gov/srtmimagegallery/index.html

How do we combine these data?

Digital Elevation

Models

Streams

Watersheds

Waterbodies

An integrated raster-vector databaseGIS in Water Resources: Lecture 1
  • In-class and distance learning
  • Geospatial database of hydrologic features
  • Arc Hydro data model
  • Curved earth and a flat map
Bringing together these two communities by using a common geospatial data model

CRWR

GIS

CRWR

GIS in Water Resources Consortium

Water Resources

Data Model Based on Behavior

“Follow a drop of water from where it falls on the land, to the stream, and all the way to the ocean.”

R.M. Hirsch, USGS

Integrating Data Inventory using a Behavioral Model

Relationships between

objects linked by tracing path

of water movement

Arc Hydro: GIS for Water Resources

Published by ESRI Press

The Arc Hydro data model and

application tools are in the public

domain

Arc Hydro —HydrographyArc Hydro —Hydrology

Drainage System

Hydro Network

Flow

Time

Time Series

Hydrography

Channel System

Arc Hydro Components

Analysis, Modeling,

Decision Making

Arc Hydro

Geodatabase

Hydrologic Information System

A synthesis of geospatial and temporal data supporting hydrologic analysis and modeling

“White space” is the Grey at Dobson minus Ahaura, Arnold and Grey at Waipuna

Nexrad Radar Rainfall Map

FLOODPLAIN MAP

Nexrad Map to Flood Map in Model Builder

Flood map

as output

Model for

flood flow

HMS

Model

for flood

depth

Nexrad map as input

GIS in Water Resources: Lecture 1
  • In-class and distance learning
  • Geospatial database of hydrologic features
  • Arc Hydro data model
  • Curved earth and a flat map
Origin of Geographic Coordinates

Equator

(0,0)

Prime Meridian

Latitude and Longitude

Longitude line (Meridian)

N

W

E

S

Range: 180ºW - 0º - 180ºE

Latitude line (Parallel)

N

W

E

S

(0ºN, 0ºE)

Equator, Prime Meridian

Range: 90ºS - 0º - 90ºN

Latitude and Longitude in North America

Austin:

(30°N, 98°W)

Logan:

(42°N, 112°W)

60 N

30 N

60 W

120 W

90 W

0 N

Map Projection

Flat Map

Cartesian coordinates: x,y

(Easting & Northing)

Curved Earth

Geographic coordinates: f, l

(Latitude & Longitude)

Representative Fraction

Globe distanceEarth distance

=

Earth to Globe to Map

Map Projection:

Map Scale:

Scale Factor

Map distanceGlobe distance

=

(e.g. 0.9996)

(e.g. 1:24,000)

Coordinate Systems

A planar coordinate system is defined by a pair

of orthogonal (x,y) axes drawn through an origin

Y

X

Origin

(xo,yo)

(fo,lo)

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